Monday, February 24, 2020
Economics Debt - Essay Example Historically, one of the main challenges to government leaders is the generation, and the application of a countryÃ¢â¬â¢s wealth and resources towards Ã¢â¬Å"three main duties of great importance. These are as follows: protecting the country from violence and invasion; protecting, as far as possible, every member of the society from oppression and injustice, and thirdly, erecting and maintaining public works, public institutions, which can never be for the interest of any individual or group of individuals. Financing the state was basically through revenue raised through Ã¢â¬Å"taxes of one kind or another (Smith 476).1 Public debt was not unheard of, but was held suspect. In the last two decades, most countries have been experiencing periods where their outlays exceed their revenues, with no balanced budget in sight. Governments faced the formidable task of managing runaway budget deficits and growing public debts, both internal (owed to nationals), and external (owed to foreigners). To cover the shortfall or deficit, governments sell public assets, levy taxes, print and/or borrow money. Government borrowings to finance deficits create Ã¢â¬Å"publicÃ¢â¬ debts, which need to be serviced through interest payments or through refinancing. Obligations of government resulting from issuing guarantees for a public sector enterprise added to the public debt become what are known as the Ã¢â¬Å"federal debt (Iqbal 2)2.Ã¢â¬ Available data showed that by 2007, 124 countries had been running on borrowings and that many of these countries had breached the acceptable level of public debt -to -GDP ratio. The US debt-to-GDP ratio had risen to 60.8 % in 2007. Other countries exhibited higher debt-to- GDP ratio; JapanÃ¢â¬â¢s debt-to-GDP ratio reached 170%, Germany, 64.9%, and Canada, 64.2 %( Nationmaster1)3. Public debt and budget deficits had become a global phenomenon and the principles of balanced budget and surplus became part of a
Saturday, February 8, 2020
Just assignment and current event - Coursework Example The society is aware that sugary, salty, fatty foods in large quantities cause diabetes, obesity and hypertension. Consumers are highly sensitive to taste, color, and packaging of products and this is what attracts them to the products despite their unhealthy nature. Evolving marketing strategies focus on making sales, rather than nutrition and health needs of consumers. It is difficult to address the issue because of the different players, the public health community and industries that manufacture the product. Even so, it is clear that immediate action is necessary to address the issue of unhealthy foods and its relationship to obesity. Ã¢â¬Å"Food Systems and Public Health: Linkages to Achieve Healthier Diets and Healthier CommunitiesÃ¢â¬ by Mary Story, Michael Hamm & David Wallinga discusses methods Americans can use to promote healthy and sustainable food consumption that are aligned with national nutritional and health precedence. It advices on governance practices and policies that can help create this change. Agricultural, health, and marketing leaders met at the Airlie Conference Center in Warrenton, Virginia to discuss the promotion of sustainable and healthy food production and consumption. The conference produced two broad principles. Firstly, the nationÃ¢â¬â¢s food system must align with the physical health and well-being of citizens, agricultural economic and environmental factors, and the need for public policy to support a health-based food system. Secondly, agricultural policies must relate to USDA/DHHS Dietary Guidelines for Americans and other national guidelines for healthy eating and good he alth, and sustain public health goals of averting obesity and chronic ailments. Ã¢â¬Å"Intestinal bacteria can be used to classify effects of different diseasesÃ¢â¬ by the Asociacion RUVID discusses the effects of obesity and other ailments on the composition of gut bacteria. Current scientific advancements allow researchers to measure and categorize the effects
Wednesday, January 29, 2020
Blind people on China Essay There are 5 million blind people in the whole world. And China is taking the first place of this problem. China accounts about 18% of blind people. Most of them canÃ¢â¬â¢t live independent; they all need someoneÃ¢â¬â¢s help. Also we can know that 90% of blind people are living in modern cities. For example: Beijing (capital), Shanghai and etc. Ã ¢he total number of blind people in China at any given time expressed as a percentage of the total population is around 0. 4%. According to the facts from internet, the countrys ever-increasing blind population has already exceed the total population in such countries as Denmark, Finland or Norway. In the whole world main problem ob blindness is cataract. Because of only the cataract blindness accounts 2. 5 million people in the world. Each year about 400,000 people become blind in one moment because of it. Cataract predominantly a disease associated with ageing. According to the famous Chinese websites, we can know that the reason of blindness in China not only cataract but also it include cornea diseases, trachoma, glaucoma. I took some interviews from 2 Chinese people. When I talked to my Chinese teacher from high school I was pretty surprised. First she told me about problems of blind people. It started past years ago, when with time there are more and more blind people was with the same objects to government. Chinese population doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t respect blind people. They are behaving to them very bad. Population doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t see any personality in them. They are acting to blind people like to animals. And every time peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s words were such a: Ã¢â¬Å"Blind people-they are not independent, they canÃ¢â¬â¢t help to our country. They canÃ¢â¬â¢t do anything. They are not useful for China. Ã¢â¬ So in my mind first thought was government in China need people only for useful thing? ItÃ¢â¬â¢s so selfish and not correct. I think everyone will agree with me. Nowadays thereÃ¢â¬â¢s so many ways to cure blind people. According to the facts from the Internet 80% of blindness possible to cure. It was many accidents when even young people didnÃ¢â¬â¢t help to blind old person. And with years there are more and more problems. How my teacher said government first didnÃ¢â¬â¢t take it such a big problem, but with time when there are more people with objects and arguments to them, they started to pay more attention to blind people. In 2011 many of them were really angry to the government. Hundred blind people want government to allow them come with dogs to public places. Because how I said before they all need help. They thought if they canÃ¢â¬â¢t come with dogs, they couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t even come inside of any places. Some of them canÃ¢â¬â¢t do it only with walking stick or every time hope to theirs hearing. And till now they are trying to get an access for that. Only part of public places allowed them come with dogs. But they are also good people who are trying to make blind peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s life easier. For example my guardians Chinese friend said that, one Chinese scientist developed a cheap e-notebook for blind people. He told me only that information, without any details, so I searched in Internet more about that e-notebook. The e-notebook, called B-Notes, allows people to take notes or memos using Braille or by recording speech. It is similar in size to a mobile phone. B-Notes makes use of technologies developed by the Chinese Academy of Sciences Institute of Computing Technology (ICT), including translation software. Prototype e-notebooks were trialed on ten blind people last month. Wang Xiangdong, technical leader of the ICT team that developed the device, says that Braille can be conveniently input using a panel on the e-notebook. And when [B-Notes is] connected to a computer, the Braille-Chinese translation software can be used to convert Braille into Chinese characters automatically, he says. Currently, there are almost 39 million blind people in the world, according to the WHO. And according to the China Disabled Persons Federation, there are more than 12 million visually disabled people in China. Wang said that the basic technological research for the e-notebooks has been completed and they are expected to be available in China later this year at a cost of 500 to 800 RMB. The e-notebook has three main features. First is the Braille input. The e-notebooks input panel has an array of mini keys that allows users to type. Second is the intelligent translation system, which is up to 95 per cent accurate. When the e-notebook is connected to a computer, pre-installed software moves all Braille in the device over to the computer and translates it into Chinese characters. Third, the e-notebook has a voice interface. There are voice prompts to guide users through the devices various operations. Currently, the notebook can only translate Chinese Braille to Chinese characters. But Wang says that if other countries express an interest in the device, it will be possible to produce e-notebooks that translate other versions of Braille into other languages. The blind people who tested the prototype notebooks told developers that they found them portable and easy to use. According to WHO website The goal of the Chinese Ministry of Health over the coming years is to reduce the prevalence of blindness in the country to less than 0. 3%, i. e. almost by half. And it really makes happy that, government paying more attention to blind people nowadays. How I read with every year they are opening more school for blind people. Also it is increasing accounts of hospitals where people can help to this nondependent people and make theirs life easier. They were some accidents when some of them cured of blind. Also I heard that most professional people who are doing massage all are blind. China has some hospitals with this course. Where they are teaching them. In my opinion, they have to pay more attention to blind people. And give them more good conditions. Make rules that everyone should respect each other, especially blind people. Government should ask them what they need, what help they want from government. China should open more clinics and hospitals for poor people. Who canÃ¢â¬â¢t pay to theirs treatment. They also need help from others. They should allow to blind people come with dogs in public places. And I can make conclusion from all of it that government should heed to them.
Tuesday, January 21, 2020
Apple is a company that has been round for many years. There are over 55 million people who use an apple product or are considered to have at least one apple product in their home. The apple products range from larger devices such as there amazingly known Mac books which are there computer based system to there much small hand held based device called the iPhone. That device allows a person to make calls all while have the convent amenities that a laptop would have. They also have the very popular iPod as well as Apple TV. They have expanded into an empire that everyone is trying to become as well as beat. As many people know there is history and hard work that has to take place in order for a business to be successful. Many people will refer to the success of apple as the underdog company that made despite the odds. Founder Steve Jobs was a regular person with a dream. He started of building an Apple computer in his parentÃ¢â¬â¢s living room and later moved to the garage true to lack of space. Later on in his building career a neighbor of Steve Jobs introduced him to Stephen Gary Wonzniak. Wonzniak was an engineer and Jobs was a market maven and together they have the skills to build and properly promote. The computer they were trying to promote was fairly expensive computer. Jobs was so dedicated to this idea of transforming this computer from what it was to something that is able to be sold to the public he reached out to Bill Hewlett and asked him to donate some parts for a class projects . Unannounced to Jobs Hewlett admired his initiative and gave him a summer at HP assembling frequency counter. In 1975 the first apple computer was created and officially sold to the public. At the time Jobs and his business partners where... ...ir reputation to go down due to more global world. Works Cited Ã¢â¬ ¢ Elliot, Jay (2012). Leading Apple with Steve Jobs: Management Lessons From a Controversial Genius. Retrieved from http://www.eblib.com Ã¢â¬ ¢ McDowell, Gayle Laakmann (2011). The Google Resume: How to Prepare for a Career and Land a Job at Apple, Microsoft, Google, or any Top Tech Company. Retrieved from http://www.eblib.com Ã¢â¬ ¢ Happy Birthday, Mac. (Apple) http://www.apple.com/30-years/ Ã¢â¬ ¢ O'Grady, J.D. (2008). Recent Titles in Corporations That Changed the World. In Apple Inc... Santa Barbara, CA: Greenwood. Retrieved from http://ebooks.abc-clio.com/reader.aspx?isbn=9780313362453&id=GR6244-4 Ã¢â¬ ¢ Lashinsky, A. (2012). Inside Apple: how America's most admired-and secretive-company really works. New York: Business Plus. Ã¢â¬ ¢ USATODAY.COM , Half of U.S. homes own Apple products May 08, 2014
Monday, January 13, 2020
Medicine, biology, research, and engineering are build blocks for the profession of a biomedical engineer. Biomedical engineering deals with the application of ones knowledge of engineering to medicine and biology to help with healthcare. To join this profession you need at the minimum of a bachelorÃ¢â¬â¢s degree in biomedical engineering. There are many types of biomedical engineering such as tissue, genetic, neural, clinical and pharmaceutical, and with each they require special expertise. This profession is fast paced and filled with excitement, biomed will forever be evolving as the research and knowledge of all things medical grow. Now biomedical engineering is a larger profession than many think and is broken into many sub-specialties that require even a higher level of education and experience. Biomedical engineering requires a higher level of education after high school. Now before college for those interested they should enroll in advanced math and science classes to help with better preparation. Now while youÃ¢â¬â¢re in college obtaining an internship would be very beneficial to getting a job after graduating since most are looking for those with experience. Biomedical engineering includes coursework from both engineering and biology. Depending on your school the subjects vary but will normally include biomaterials, physiology, solid and fluid mechanics, and computer programming. Now if you enroll in a biomedical engineering program it must be accredited by ABET, if not your degree may not help you get a job after graduation. Well after graduation a brighter world opens up to you and you have a wide variety of other directions to travel because biomedical engineering doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t just stop there. Tissue engineering is the study for the growth of new connective tissues, organs, etc. This allows the creation of fully functional organs for implantation into host bodies. Sounds quite innovative and it is with the direct implantation over transplantation which could cause the host body to reject the organ causing further problems. Now to break down this process first a sample of cells would be taken from the host body, which soon after will be cultured from explants. Culturing explants is basically the process of mig rating and the expansion of cells. Then the cells get further culturing to form tissue thatÃ¢â¬â¢s been engineered for implantation. Now these experiments are carried out within special Tissue Culture Facilities to keep a safe and sterile environment. Now whenÃ these donor implants are created they are given growth measures so the cells can multiply and grow so once implanted they will recreate their intended functions. Now thatÃ¢â¬â¢s quite fascinating, but this is just the tip of the ice berg thereÃ¢â¬â¢s much more to be unfolded. Genetic engineering deals with the manipulation and changing of cells and their makeup. Often people think of this being a way to create super organisms, which is actually quite true in a sense. This part of biomedical engineering helps scientist break through the boundaries that restricts them from creating novel organisms. Novel organisms are organisms that can produce offspring with new gene combinations through sexual reproduction. Now this process takes place when engineers extract specific gene traits and transfers them into another specimen. Therefore new combinations of genes and traits lay a path for new species that doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t occur in nature and by which canÃ¢â¬â¢t be developed b y natural means. Although these may be great feats this is one of the riskier specialties. Alongside the benefits adding unnatural genes and traits can bring forth unknown consequences, but this is someoneÃ¢â¬â¢s future and our future. Neural engineering runs on the principals of wanting to understand the brain and how it works; all the while developing new technology to interact and treat the brain. These engineers are taught about fundamental diseases such as AlzheimerÃ¢â¬â¢s, ParkinsonÃ¢â¬â¢s, tinnitus, and epilepsy. Other skills that are needed for this profession include signal processing, image processing, instrumentation and computational modeling as well as electrode design, amplifier and filter design, brain machine interfaces, cochlear implants, and deep brain stimulation. Now all of that sounds over whelming but neural engineering requires some of the top precision because the brain is something like the bodies controller. So being an amateur in this field is not something thatÃ¢â¬â¢s accepted. Clinical engineering deals with the stride towards better te chnology to analyze and provide solutions for the clinical needs of patients. This field is quite diverse and covers a lot of areas within health care. These engineers work with complex human and technological systems. Now these men/women are the technical managers of the medical equipment, some of their responsibilities include financial or budgetary management, service contract management, data processing and in house operators. In addition they also fill other important functions like assuring that the medical equipment is safe and effective. ClinicalÃ engineers are one of the more precise and helpful of the engineers because they work with medical, nursing and paramedical staff to ensure that the care their trying to deliver with the assistance of technology is being worked to the best of its ability. Pharmaceutical engineering is the field that deals with the creating and manufacturing plants and pharmaceutical products that are generated by these plants. These engineers help create the guidelines that regard the production of medical drugs in addition to their other work. Now alike the tissue engineers their sites of work but maintain sanitary all the time on a count of the drugs and other items they handle. Labeling and packaging these pharmaceuticals after validating the integrity is another task they must handle. It may sound odd but a major aspect of the job is being able to designing the pharmaceutical facility. They must build pharmaceutical and research facilities while considering the equipment needed and the Ã¢â¬Å"cleanroomsÃ¢â¬ and other utility stations they use. Clean rooms are an enclosed area that have low numbers of environmental pollutants, like dust or other things that can contaminate, this is somewhat of a Pharmaceutical engineerÃ¢â¬â¢s sanctuary in a way. In conclusion biomedical engineering is a very demanding yet interesting profession and can branch off into other specialties to enhance the fascinating experience. As you read through some of them you may have realize that each have their own intricate points, but all of them have one common goal and thatÃ¢â¬â¢s to provide healthcare and its people with the best of the best no matter what their in need of. No matter which direction you decide to go with youÃ¢â¬â¢ll need a concise clear mind and an education to back it up. This is a very advanced profession and will only grow upon itself for years to come, so if this profession is chosen be sure that youÃ¢â¬â¢re ready and filled with enthusiasm and ambition because it will be needed. Works Cited King, YaShekia, and E. E. Hubbard. WiseGeek. Conjecture, n.d. Web. 29 Sept. 2013. . Ã¢â¬Å"Neural Engineering.Ã¢â¬ : Emphasis Areas : Undergraduate Program : Department of Biomedical Engineering : University of Minnesota. N.p., n.d. Web. 29 Sept. 2013. . Ã¢â¬Å"Trinity College Dublin.Ã¢â¬ What Is Clinical Engineering. N.p., n.d. Web. 29 Sept. 2013. . Ã¢â¬Å"What Is Genetic Engineering?Ã¢â¬ Union of Concerned Scientist: Citizens and Scientist for Environmental Soultions. N.p., n.d. Web. 29 Sept. 2013. . Ã¢â¬Å"What Is Tissue Engineering.Ã¢â¬ What Is Tissue Engineering. N.p., n.d. Web. 29 Sept. 2013. .
Sunday, January 5, 2020
Culture Shock in International Students Culture shock is an issue that has been discussed widely in a variety of fields. It is an issue that spans all cultures and groups and can affect anyone who transitions from one culture to another. Although it might be typically thought of as something that only happens when an individual travels to a new country, it can easily be experienced with a move or visit to a new region of a country. In light of the globalization that we as a society are currently experiencing, it seems to be becoming more and more important to learn how to communicate with, and learn from, other cultures. With this in mind, many students choose to leave the familiarity of their own culture, and travel to a new country for their education. When they do this many, if not all, will experience some degree of culture shock. Therefore, it is important to consider the common elements of culture shock in international students, as well as the responsibility of the schools they attended when it comes to helping them through this process. The Concept of Culture Shock In order to apply the idea of culture shock to international students specifically, we must first address what culture shock actually is in general. As Winkelman (1994) explains, Ã¢â¬Å"cultural (or culture) shock is a multifaceted experience resulting from numerous stressors occurring in contact with a different cultureÃ¢â¬ (p. 121). Culture shock can be exhibited in many different ways. The experience itselfShow MoreRelatedThe Effects Of Culture Shock On International Students845 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pageswas an international student, and he had fled due his misunderstanding of the caution by the police. Nowadays, along with the rapid economic development, an increasing number of students from many countries choose to study abroad. The majority of students hold the view that studying abroad brings many benefits, most international students have those commonly mentioned feelings that are disorientation, uncertainty and even fear when they encounter unfam iliar culture practices. Those students are sufferingRead MoreCultural Adjustment And Its Effects On Society938 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesstudies have shown that the number of international students who are enrolled outside their countries has increased worldwide in the last decades. Almost all of them will face a phenomenon as soon as they go far away from their hometown, which is called cultural shock. However, learning the phases of cultural adjustment will aid to deal with the culture shock that many people have faced it in different ways, including Chinese, myself, and other international students. Yaping Tang states in a 1996 essayRead MoreHigher Education For International Students998 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesHigher education in the UK has probably become one of the most popular choices for international students. The study devoted into the experiences of the international students report that the phenomenon of culture shock as a part of challenges could be troubling them (UKCISA, 2008). Whereas, the students who come from developing countries responded that the higher education in the UK would extend work field as well as the effect of social cognition (Mazzarol and Soutar, 2002). Hence, it will beRead MoreThree Stages Of Culture Shock Essay1157 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesName: Candice Wu Title: Ã¢â¬Å"Three Stages of Culture ShockÃ¢â¬ Specific Rhetorical Purpose: To inform my audience about the three stages of culture shock and some tips of how to adjust and accept the different culture. Thesis: A better understanding of what culture shock is can help people to get over culture shock easily. Introduction Attention-getter: In Bulgabia, nodding left and right means yes, nodding up and down means no; In Sweden, people use folk and knife to eat their burgers; In Germany, peopleRead MoreProblems Faced by International Students867 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages Problems Faces by International Students in the UK Every year there are around 435,000 international students enrolled in universities around the UK (UKCISA). Studying abroad for a lot of these students is a privilege, however it can be a stressful experience for various reasons. There are plenty of challenges, other than language barrier, that these students face, like major culture shock, homesickness, and financial difficultiesRead MoreCulture Shock And Its Effects On Society1004 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pageshuge quantity of students goes to learning abroad every year but what is the biggest challenge they cannot hide from? The tendency of living or studying abroad has been increasing the recent years in every culture or country. Millions of students have to face the overwhelming challenge of living thousands miles away home and adapting to their new environment without disregarding their studies. Sojourners have to face adapting to a new culture, so they will deal with the Ã¢â¬Å"Culture ShockÃ¢â¬ . This phenomenonRead MoreCulture Sho ck And Cultural Adaptation1402 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesCulture shock is generally describes the uneasiness, stress as well as anxiety an individual feels when they encounter an unfamiliar cultural background, as a result of loosing familiar cues along with meanings associated with behavior and communication. Culture shock is thus an experience that happens to a person in every sphere of life when they face different lifestyles and world perceptions whether with regards to education, health or jobs among others. While residents or natives may take forRead MoreChallenges Faced By International Students1007 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesby international students in American academic institutions Mallika Mahanandi Wilmington University Challenges faced by international students in American academic institutions In the article Ã¢â¬Å"Academic culture shockÃ¢â¬ author Godwin A. Kara discuss about the American academic institutions and the culture shock faced by the international students and scholars in the academic system. In the opening lines the author states Ã¢â¬Å"There is a gradual increase in the number of international students andRead MoreCommon Problems Faced by International Students in the UK955 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesan increasingly popular choice for higher education among international students (Accessibility Navigation, 2014). An average of 10% of students in universities all across the UK are international students from countries all over the world. (Accessibility Navigation, 2014). Although the experience is different for each individual student, there are many common problems that international students face. Those problems include: culture shock to varying degrees coupled with emotional issues(Bailey, 2005)Read MoreLanguage Is Not the Only Problem Faced by International Students in the Uk. to What Extent Do You Agree with This Statement?1175 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesLanguage is not the only problem faced by international students in the UK. To what extent do you agree with this statement? International students are very important for the economic growth of the UK. Number of international students in UK was about 405,910 in 2009 and in 2010 it increased up to 428,225 (which is about 6%). These students play a very important role in UKÃ¢â¬â¢s economy and bring huge income to the country. Shane Spiers, managing director of UNITE says The UKs higher education
Saturday, December 28, 2019
The United States Constitution did not mention women or limit any of its rights or privileges to males. The word persons was used, which sounds gender neutral. However, common law, inherited from British precedents, informed the interpretation of the law. And many state laws were not gender-neutral. While right after the Constitution was adopted, New Jersey accepted voting rights for women, even those had been lost by a bill in 1807 that rescinded the right of both women and black men to vote in that state. The principle of coverture prevailed at the time the Constitution was written and adopted: a married woman was simply not a person under the law; her legal existence was bound up with that of her husbands. Dower rights, meant to protect a widows income during her lifetime, were already being ignored increasingly, and so women were in the tough position of not having significant rights to own property, while the convention of dower that had protected them under that system was collapsing. Beginning in the 1840s, womens rights advocates began working to establish legal and political equality for women in some of the states. Property rights of women were among the first targets. But these did not affect the federal constitutional rights of women. Not yet. 1868: Fourteenth Amendment to the US Constitution The first major constitutional change to affect womens rights was the Fourteenth Amendment. This amendment was designed to overturn the Dred Scott decision, which found that black people had no rights which the white man was bound to respect, and to clarify other citizenship rights after the American Civil War had ended. The primary effect was to ensure that freed slaves and other African Americans had full citizenship rights. But the amendment also included the word male in connection with voting, and the womens rights movement split over whether to support the amendment because it established racial equality in voting, or oppose it because it was the first explicit federal denial that women had voting rights. 1873: Bradwell v. Illinois Myra Bradwell claimed the right to practice law as part of the 14th Amendments protections. The Supreme Court found that the right to choose ones profession was not a protected right and that womens paramount destiny and mission was the offices of wife and mother. Women could be legally excluded from the practice of law, the Supreme Court found, using a separate spheres argument. 1875: Minor v. Happerset The suffrage movement decided to use the Fourteenth Amendment, even with that mention of male, to justify women voting. A number of women in 1872 attempted to vote in a federal election; Susan B. Anthony was arrested and convicted for doing so. A Missouri woman, Virginia Minor, also challenged the law. The registrars action forbidding her from voting was the basis for yet another case to reach the Supreme Court (her husband had to file the lawsuit, as coverture laws forbid her as a married woman from filing on her own behalf). In their decision inÃ Minor v. Happerset, the Court found that while women were indeed citizens, voting was not one of the privileges and immunities of citizenship and thus states could deny women the right to vote. 1894: In re Lockwood Belva Lockwood filed a lawsuit to force Virginia to allow her to practice law. She was already a member of the bar in the District of Columbia. But the Supreme Court found that it was acceptable to read the word citizens in the 14th Amendment to include only male citizens. 1903: Muller v. Oregon Thwarted in legal cases claiming womens full equality as citizens, womens rights and labor rights workers filed the Brandeis Brief in the case of Muller v. Oregon. The claim was that womens special status as wives and mothers, especially as mothers, required that they be given special protection as workers. The Supreme Court had been reluctant to allow legislatures to interfere with contract rights of employers by permitting limits on hours or minimum wage requirements; however, in this case, the Supreme Court looked at evidence of working conditions and permit special protections for women in the workplace. Louis Brandeis, himself later appointed to the Supreme Court, was the lawyer for the case promoting protective legislation for women; the Brandeis brief was prepared primarily by his sister-in-law Josephine Goldmark and by reformer Florence Kelley. 1920: Nineteenth Amendment Women were granted the right to vote by the 19th Amendment, passed by Congress in 1919 and ratified by enough states in 1920 to take effect. 1923: Adkins v. Childrens Hospital In 1923, the Supreme Court decided that federal minimum wage legislation applying to women infringed on the liberty of contract and thus on the Fifth Amendment. Muller v. Oregon was not overturned, however. 1923: Equal Rights Amendment Introduced Alice Paul wrote a proposed Equal Rights Amendment to the Constitution to require equal rights for men and women. She named the proposed amendment for suffrage pioneer Lucretia Mott. When she reworded the amendment in the 1940s, it came to be called the Alice Paul amendment. It did not pass the Congress until 1972. 1938: West Coast Hotel Co. v. Parrish This decision by the Supreme Court, overturning Adkins v. Childrens Hospital, upheld Washington States minimum wage legislation, opening the door again for protective labor legislation applying to women or men. 1948: Goesaert v. Cleary In this case, the Supreme Court found valid a state statute prohibiting most women (other than wives or daughters of male tavern keepers) from serving or selling liquor. 1961: Hoyt v. Florida The Supreme Court heard this case challenging a conviction on the basis that the female defendant faced an all-male jury because jury duty was not mandatory for women. The Supreme Court denied that the state statute exempting women from jury duty was discriminatory, finding that women needed protection from the atmosphere of the courtroom and that it was reasonable to assume that women were needed in the home. 1971: Reed v. Reed InÃ Reed v. Reed, the U.S. Supreme Court heard a case where state law preferred males to females as administrators of an estate. In this case, unlike many earlier cases, the Court held that the 14th Amendments equal protection clause applied to women equally. 1972: Equal Rights Amendment Passes Congress In 1972, the US Congress passed the Equal Rights Amendment, sending it to the states. The Congress appended a requirement that the amendment be ratified within seven years, later extended to 1982, but only 35 of the requisite states ratified it during that period. Some legal scholars challenge the deadline, and by that assessment, the ERA is still alive to be ratified by three more states. 1973: Frontiero v. Richardson In the case ofÃ Frontiero v. Richardson, the Supreme Court found that the military could not have different criteria for male spouses of military members in deciding eligibility for benefits, violating the Fifth Amendments Due Process Clause. The court also signaled that it would be using more scrutiny in the future in looking at sex distinctions in the lawÃ¢â¬ânot quite strict scrutiny, which did not get majority support among the justices in the case. 1974: Geduldig v. Aiello Geduldig v. Aiello looked at a states disability insurance system which excluded temporary absences from work due to pregnancy disability and found that normal pregnancies did not have to be covered by the system. 1975: Stanton v. Stanton In this case, the Supreme Court threw out distinctions in the age at which girls and boys were entitled to child support. 1976: Planned Parenthood v. Danforth The Supreme Court found that spousal consent laws (in this case, in the third trimester) were unconstitutional because the pregnant womans rights were more compelling than her husbands. The Court did uphold that regulations requiring the womans full and informed consent were constitutional. 1976: Craig. v. Boren InÃ Craig v. Boren, the court threw out a law which treated men and women differently in setting a drinking age. The case is also noted for setting out the new standard of judicial review in cases involving sex discrimination, intermediate scrutiny. 1979: Orr v. Orr In Orr v. Orr, the Court held that alimony laws applied equally to women and men and that the means of the partner were to be considered, not merely their sex. 1981: Rostker v. Goldberg In this case, the Court applied equal protection analysis to examine whether male-only registration for the Selective Service violated the due process clause.Ã By a six to three decision, the Court applied the heightened scrutiny standard ofÃ Craig v. BorenÃ to find that military readiness and appropriate use of resources justified the sex-based classifications. The court did not challenge the exclusion of women from combat and the role of women in the armed forces in making their decision. 1987: Rotary International v. Rotary Club of Duarte In this case, the Supreme Court weighed aÃ Ã¢â¬Å"States efforts to eliminate gender-based discrimination against its citizens and the constitutional freedom of association asserted by members of a private organization.Ã¢â¬ A unanimous decision by the court, with a decision written by Justice Brennan, found unanimously that the message of the organization would not be changed by admitting women, and therefore, by the strict scrutiny test, the interest of the state overrode a claim to a First Amendment right of freedom of association and freedom of speech.